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REFRESHED: December 13, 2017 | 05:16

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PMID:  Therapie. 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26. PMID: 29195714Abstract Title:  [Gastric acid rebound after a proton pump inhibitor: Narrative review of literature].Abstract:  BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of the first proton pump inhibitor (PPI) 20 years ago, studies have examined the presence of a rebound effect when this treatment is discontinued. These studies are heterogeneous and contradictory: the last literature review on the rebound in gastric acidity dates from 2006 and did not allow to conclude on the subject. Our objective was tocarry out an up-to-date literature review on the existence and characteristics of this gastric acid rebound at the end of PPIs.METHODS: We conducted a review of the literature on the gastric acid rebound, without excluding the design of the studies. The Medline® databases (PubMed), ISI (Web Of Science) and Google Scholar were queried using the following equation: ("inhibitor proton pump"OR omeprazole OR esomeprazole OR lansoprazole OR pantoprazole OR rabeprazole) AND"rebound"AND"Acid hypersecretion". Only studies with a measure (whatever it was) before and after treatment were analyzed.RESULTS: Of the 131 publications identified, 10 were selected. The design of the studies was very heterogeneous. Five studies concluded a rebound effect. Studies with a treatment duration of less than 4 weeks did not demonstrate a rebound effect. The colonization with Helicobacter pylori masked the appearance of the rebound.CONCLUSION: Daily PPI exposure for more than 4 weeks is likely to trigger a rebound of acid hypersecretion about 15 days after discontinuation, and lasting from a few days to several weeks depending on the duration of the exposure.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 11:36 pm
PMID:  Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3. PMID: 29105111Abstract Title:  Proton pump inhibitors are associated with accelerated development of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: results from ERCHIVES.Abstract:  BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Their safety in cirrhosis has recently been questioned, but their overall effect on disease progression in noncirrhotic patients with chronic liver disease remains unclear.AIM: To determine the impact of proton pump inhibitors on the progression of liver disease in noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: Using the electronically retrieved cohort of HCV-infected veterans (ERCHIVES) database, we identified all subjects who received HCV treatment and all incident cases of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. Proton pump inhibitor use was measured using cumulative defined daily dose. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed after adjusting univariate predictors of cirrhosis and various indications for proton pump inhibitor use.RESULTS: Among 11 526 eligible individuals, we found that exposure to proton pump inhibitors was independently associated with an increased risk of developing cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: [1.17, 1.49]). This association remained robust to sensitivity analysis in which only patients who achieved sustained virologic response were analysed as well as analysis excluding those with alcohol abuse/dependence. Proton pump inhibitor exposure was also independently associated with an increased risk of hepatic decompensation (HR: 3.79 [2.58, 5.57]) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HR: 2.01 [1.50, 2.70]).CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic HCV infection, increasing proton pump inhibitor use is associated with a dose-dependent risk of progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis, as well as an increased risk of hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 10:07 pm
PMID:  J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4. PMID: 29105152Abstract Title:  Proton pump inhibitor alters oral microbiome in gastrointestinal tract of healthy volunteers.Abstract:  BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acid suppressive agents including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used as first-line treatment for various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Although known to profoundly reduce gastric acid production, their influence on inhibition of acid secretion as part of the function of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of PPI usage on oral and gut microbiota in healthy volunteers.METHODS: Ten healthy adult volunteers receiving no medications were enrolled. We obtained fecal, saliva, and periodontal pocket fluid samples from the subjects before and after 4 weeks of once daily administrations of 20 mg esomeprazole. The effects of PPI administration on bacterial communities were investigated using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing method.RESULTS: Species richness (alpha diversity) was significantly different among the salivary, periodontal pocket, and fecal samples. Furthermore, the measurements for UniFrac distances, despite inter-individual variations (beta diversity), of the microbiota structure of saliva, and periodontal pocket and feces samples were clearly separated from each other. The salivary samples showed significant differences between alpha and beta diversity measurements before and after administration of the PPI for 4 weeks. Meanwhile, taxon-based analysis indicated that PPI administration raised the ratio of Streptococcus organisms in fecal samples, suggesting a potentially unfavorable effect leading to gut microbiota alteration. Moreover, alterations of the microbiota in the oral carriage microbiome along with bacterial overgrowth (Streptococcus) and decreases in distinct bacterial species (Neisseria, Veillonella) were observed.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PPIs cause both oral and gut microbiota alterations.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 9:44 pm
PMID:  Gastroenterology Res. 2017 Oct ;10(5):288-293. Epub 2017 Oct 26. PMID: 29118869Abstract Title:  Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Associated With an Increased Frequency of Hospitalization in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.Abstract:  Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed medications in clinical practice. PPI use has been associated with the development of community-acquired pneumonia. With a reported prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and PPI use that is higher than the general population, patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are particularly vulnerable to PPI adverse effects. We sought to explore whether PPI use was associated with a higher number of hospitalizations for CF pulmonary exacerbation.Methods: We conducted a longitudinal retrospective review in an academic outpatient setting. Patients>18 years of age with a diagnosis of CF and at least 1 year of follow-up were eligible for inclusion. Baseline characteristics, PPI use, and details of hospitalization through 1 year of follow-up were collected.Results: One hundred fourteen patients met inclusion criteria. Fifty-nine patients (51.7%) were hospitalized at least once in the follow-up year, mean number of hospitalizations was 2.17 (± 1.9). At least 6 months of PPI use was observed in 59 patients (51.7%). In univariate analysis, PPI use was associated with a significantly higher mean number of hospitalizations (0.9 vs. 1.4, P = 0.009). In a multi-variable regression model, PPI use remained significantly associated with a higher number of hospitalizations (P = 0.03), while controlling for risk factors traditionally associated with increased pulmonary exacerbations.Conclusion: PPI use is highly prevalent in CF patients. Exposure to PPI therapy is independently associated with a higher number of hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbation in CF patients.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 8:31 pm
PMID:  Intern Med. 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20. PMID: 29151538Abstract Title:  Iron Deficiency Anemia Due to the Long-term Use of a Proton Pump Inhibitor.Abstract:  A 52-year-old man who had been taking omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), for 25 years developed iron deficiency anemia. An evaluation of the entire gastrointestinal tract did not reveal any possible causes of gastrointestinal blood loss. The cause of the iron deficiency was considered to be a reduction in gastrointestinal iron absorption in association with the reduced secretion of gastric acid due to PPI use. This case demonstrates that long-term PPI use for as long as 25 years may cause iron deficiency anemia and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in long-term PPI users.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 8:10 pm
PMID:  Biol Reprod. 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4. PMID: 29228121Abstract Title:  Low-dose bisphenol A activates the ERK signaling pathway and attenuates steroidogenic gene expression in human placental cells.Abstract:  Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial material used for many plastic products and is considered an endocrine disruptor. BPA can be released into the environment and can spread through the food chain. It is well known that BPA exposure leads to lesions, especially in the reproductive system. According to previous studies, BPA reduces newborn numbers in pregnant mice and affects placentation. The placenta is a special endocrine organ during pregnancy. It secretes important hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen, to maintain gestation. In steroid hormone synthesis, two specific enzymes are important; P450scc (CYP11A1) converts cholesterol to pregnenolone and aromatase (CYP19) induces androgen conversion to estrogen.To determine the effects of a low dose of BPA on hormone synthesis in the placenta, we used JEG-3 cells as a model. We found that the steroidogenic genes CYP11A1 and CYP19 were down-regulated in human tissues by detectable concentrations of BPA (1-1000 nM), which do not affect cell viability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BPA influenced the ERK signaling pathway and resulted in hormone reductions. An analysis of trophoblasts in primary culture from a term human placenta showed the same phenomena. Our data demonstrate that treatment with a low dose of BPA does not affect human placental cell survival, but decreases hormone production via to the downregulation of steroidogenic genes and ERK signaling pathway changes.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 5:47 pm
PMID:  J Breath Res. 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28. PMID: 29182524Abstract Title:  Long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy leads to small bowel bacterial overgrowth as determined by breath hydrogen and methane excretion.Abstract:  Prolonged suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may alter the bacterial microbiota of the upper gastrointestinal tract and lead to small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Published reports have shown conflicting results on the association between PPI therapy and risk of SBBO development. We evaluated whether long-term PPI treatment is associated with presence of SBBO as determined by breath hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) excretion. We also assessed the differences in H2 / CH4 excretion patterns in patients taking PPI compared with those not taking the medication and searched for the potential predictors of a positive breath test result. Material and methods: This was a prospective cohort study that included 67 PPI treated patients (PPIT) and 62 not-receiving PPI (C, comparison). PPIT and C underwent a glucose H2 / CH4 breath test (HMBT) to determine the presence of SBBO. Results: The prevalence of SBBO was significantly higher in PPIT compared to C (44.8% vs 21%, p=0.005, OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.40-6.66) as determined by H2 and CH4 excretion. We found that PPIT had all H2 test parameters (baseline H2 levels, maximum peak of H2 as well as mean H2 through the whole test) significantly higher than C. Even those PPIT who did not meet criteria of breath test positivity had statistically higher breath H2 levels compared toC. Although we did not observe significant differences in CH4 excretion between groups, 19.4% of PPIT and 12.9% of C would have had a false-negative HMBT results had CH4 not been taken into account. Conclusions: Long-term PPI use was found to be significantly associated with the SBBO development as determined by breath H2 and CH4 excretion. CH4 determination reduces the number of falsely negative test results.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 5:36 pm
PMID:  Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2017 Dec ;37:87-92. Epub 2017 Nov 5. PMID: 29107872Abstract Title:  Inflammation and gut-brain axis link obesity to cognitive dysfunction: plausible pharmacological interventions.Abstract:  Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The precise mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and the risk of cognitive impairment are still largely unknown but potential avenues of further research include insulin resistance, the gut-brain axis, and systemic mediators and central inflammation processes. A common feature of metabolic diseases is a chronic and low-grade activation of the inflammatory system. This inflammation may eventually spread from peripheral tissue to the brain, and recent reports suggest that neuroinflammation is an important causal mechanism in cognitive decline. This inflammatory status could be triggered by changes in the gut microbiota composition. Consumption of diets high in fat and sugar influences the microbiota composition, which may lead to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut. Thus, it has recently been hypothesized that the gut microbiota could be part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of high fat and other unbalanced diets and impaired cognition, termed 'gut-brain axis'. The present review will aim at providing an integrative analysis of the effects of obesity and unbalanced diets on cognitive performance and discusses some of the potential mechanisms involved, namely inflammation and changes in gut-brain axis. Moreover, the review aims to analyze anti-inflammatory drugs that have been tested for the treatment of cognition and obesity, recently approved anti-obesity drugs that could also have an impact on central nervous system, and bioactive food compounds that modulate gut microbiota and could have an impact through the gut-brain axis. In this era of precision nutrition medicine, it is imperative to identify the various metabolic-neurocognitive phenotypes in order to understand the processes that drive these diseases so that targeted therapeutic strategies to prevent and successfully manage these complex, multifactorial diseases could be designed and developed.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 4:12 pm
PMID:  CNS Neurosci Ther. 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PMID: 29110407Abstract Title:  Acupuncture inhibits TXNIP-associated oxidative stress and inflammation to attenuate cognitive impairment in vascular dementia rats.Abstract:  AIMS: Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) plays a vital role in oxidative stress and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. There is evidence that acupuncture has an antioxidative and neuroprotective effect in VD. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture can attenuate cognitive impairment via inhibiting TXNIP-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in VD rats.METHODS: Both common carotid arteries were occluded (2-vessel occlusion [2VO]) in rats to model VD. The neuroprotective effect of acupuncture was assessed by the Morris water maze and Nissl staining. Oxidative stress was assessed by detecting levels of reactive oxygen species, DNA oxidation, and antioxidase. Western blot, real-time PCR, and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of TXNIP, NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. A TXNIP siRNA intraventricular injection was applied to investigate whether acupuncture mimicked the effect of TXNIP inhibitor.RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that VD rats treated with acupuncture had reduced hippocampal neuronal loss and oxidative stress. The upregulation of TXNIP, NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β induced by 2VO was also reversed by acupuncture. Furthermore, TXNIP siRNA had a similar effect as acupuncture on cognition, hippocampal neurons, and ROS production in VD rats.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study suggests that the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture in VD are mediated through reducing expression of TXNIP-associated oxidative stress and inflammation.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 3:58 pm
PMID:  Front Aging Neurosci. 2017 ;9:345. Epub 2017 Oct 31. PMID: 29163128Abstract Title:  Insulin Resistance and Alzheimer's Disease: Bioenergetic Linkages.Abstract:  Metabolic dysfunction is a well-established feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), evidenced by brain glucose hypometabolism that can be observed potentially decades prior to the development of AD symptoms. Furthermore, there is mounting support for an association between metabolic disease and the development of AD and related dementias. Individuals with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), hyperlipidemia, obesity, or other metabolic disease may have increased risk for the development of AD and similar conditions, such as vascular dementia. This association may in part be due to the systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that is common to these pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is a significant feature of AD and may play a fundamental role in its pathogenesis. In fact, aging itself presents a unique challenge due to inherent mitochondrial dysfunction and prevalence of chronic metabolic disease. Despite the progress made in understanding the pathogenesis of AD and in the development of potential therapies, at present we remain without a disease-modifying treatment. In this review, we will discuss insulin resistance as a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of AD, as well as the metabolic and bioenergetic disruptions linking insulin resistance and AD. We will also focus on potential neuroimaging tools for the study of the metabolic dysfunction commonly seen in AD with hopes of developing therapeutic and preventative targets.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 3:48 pm
PMID:  Front Immunol. 2017 ;8:1464. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PMID: 29163531Abstract Title:  Impaired Resolution of Inflammation in Alzheimer's Disease: A Review.Abstract:  Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and over the last several decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder has been increasingly elucidated. The initiation of the acute inflammatory response is counterbalanced by an active process termed resolution. This process is designed to restore homeostasis and promote tissue healing by the activation of neutrophilic apoptosis, promotion of neutrophil clearance by macrophages, and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, while concurrently leading to a diminution in pro-inflammatory mediators. The switch from the initiation to the resolution phase of inflammation is initially characterized by increased production of arachidonic acid-derived pro-resolving lipoxins and decreases in pro-inflammatory prostaglandin and leukotriene levels, subsequently followed by increases in specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators derived from omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs). There is mounting evidence that in AD, the resolution of inflammation is impaired, resulting in chronic inflammation and the exacerbation of the AD-related pathology. In this review, we examine preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that AD is a neurodegenerative disorder where the impairment or failure of resolution contributes to the disease process. Moreover, we review the literature supporting the potential therapeutic role of ω-3 FAs and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators in the management of the disease. Lastly, we highlight areas that could strengthen the association of failed resolution to AD and should, therefore, be the focus of future scientific investigations in this research field.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 3:32 pm
PMID:  Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7. PMID: 29126958Abstract Title:  Effects of LED -Based Photodynamic Therapy using Red and Blue Lights, with Natural Hydrophobic Photosensitizers on Human Glioma Cell Line.Abstract:  Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received high attention in cancer treatment due to its minimal side effects, specific cancer-targeting, non-invasion and low cost. It utilizes a specific group of anti-cancer drugs called photosensitizers (PS), which can be only activated under a certain wavelength light illumination and kills cancer cells. To screen the potential of PS and setup of PDT treatment protocol, it is essential to assess the PDT efficacy in vitro. In this study, a light-emitting diode- (LED-) based illumination system at two wavelengths (red&blue) with homogeneous and stable irradiation, and constant temperature conditions in 96-well plates was provided. The photodynamic effect of curcumin (CUR) and methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid (MAL) using LED light on human glioma cell line was investigated. The obtained results indicate that this homemade LED-based illumination system is a favorable light source for in vitro PDT in 96-well plates. The PDT using CUR and MAL was efficient at final concentrations of 25μM and 2mM, and light doses of 60J/cm2 and 40J/cm2 respectively. The blue PDT efficiency was dependent on the light and PS doses. MAL-PDT and CUR-PDT using blue LED significantly decreased cell viability in the treatment groups compared with control groups. Furthermore, MAL-PDT using blue LEDs wasmore effective in comparison with conventional red LEDs on the human glioma cell line.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 10:50 am
PMID:  Ann Dermatol. 2017 Dec ;29(6):747-754. Epub 2017 Oct 30. PMID: 29200764Abstract Title:  Various Wavelengths of Light-Emitting Diode Light Regulate the Proliferation of Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Follicles via Wnt/β-Catenin and the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathways.Abstract:  Background: The human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) play an important role in regulation of hair cycling and growth.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the proliferation of cultured hDPCs and on the growth of human hair follicles (HFs) in vitro.Methods: We examined the effect of LED irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in hDPCs. Anagen HFs were cultured with LED irradiation and elongation of each hair shaft was measured.Results: The most potent wavelength in promoting the hDPC proliferation is 660 nm and 830 nm promoted hDPC proliferation to a lesser extent than 660 nm. Various wavelengths significantly increasedβ-catenin, Axin2, Wnt3a, Wnt5a and Wnt10b mRNA expression. LED irradiation significantly increased β-catenin and cyclin D expression, and the phosphorylation of MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). HFs irradiated with 415 nm and 660 nm grew longer than control.Conclusion: Our result suggests that LED has a potential to stimulate hDPC proliferation via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ERK pathway. To our best knowledge, this is the first report which investigated that the effect of various wavelengths of LED on hDPC proliferation and the underlying mechanisms.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 10:11 am
PMID:  Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017 ;2017:7865073. Epub 2017 Jul 6. PMID: 28761624Abstract Title:  Pitaya Extracts Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on Human Cell Lines of Breast Cancer via Downregulation of Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression.Abstract:  Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is also the leading cause of cancer death in women. The use of bioactive compounds of functional foods contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and the influence of pitaya extract (PE) on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, PRAB, and Erα in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435). PE showed high antioxidant activity and high values of anthocyanins (74.65 ± 2.18). We observed a selective decrease in cell proliferation caused by PE in MCF-7 (ER+) cell line. Cell cycle analysis revealed that PE induced an increase in G0/G1 phase followed by a decrease in G2/M phase. Also, PE induced apoptosis in MCF-7 (ER+) cell line and suppressed BRCA1, BRCA2, PRAB, and Erα gene expression. Finally, we also demonstrate that no effect was observed with MDA-MB-435 cells (ER-) after PE treatment. Taken together, the present studysuggests that pitaya may have a protective effect against breast cancer.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 8:15 am
PMID:  Clin Exp Hypertens. 2017 Nov 6:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PMID: 29106302Abstract Title:  Comparative study on the effects of apple peel polyphenols and apple flesh polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors in mice.Abstract:  Apple consumption has been demonstrated to be associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and the beneficial effect is probably due to the polyphenols in apple. Here, we for the first time evaluated and compared the in vivo effects of the polyphenolic extracts of apple peels (PAP) and apple fleshes (PAF) on blood pressure, vascular endothelial function, lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. A high-fat and high-fructose (HFHF) diet was used to cause cardiovascular disorders in mice, with blood pressure, serum ET-1, TC, TG, LDL-C, glucose and insulin levels increased, and serum NO and HDL-C levels decreased. Mice administered with 250 mg/kg of PAP and PAF for 28 days showed lower blood pressure, improved endothelial function, ameliorated lipid homeostasis and decreased insulin resistance compared with HFHF-fed mice. Furthermore, PAP exhibited much more potent cardioprotective effects than PAF in mice. Quantification and phenolic profile analysis showed that PAP contained remarkably higher amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids than PAF, and this may be the reason for the relatively stronger efficacy of PAP. This study demonstrates that apple polyphenols possess potential cardioprotective effects, and suggests that apple, especially apple peel, may be excellent source for exploration of preventive agents against cardiovascular disorders.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 1:11 am
PMID:  Nutrients. 2017 Nov 18 ;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 18. PMID: 29156563Abstract Title:  WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations.Abstract:  Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. 'Annurca' and Malus domestica cv 'Limoncella'; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostlythanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 12, 2017, 12:29 am
This article is copyrighted by GreenMedInfo LLC, 2017
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Depression is a common health condition, with few conventional treatment options. Forced to choose between talk therapy and medication, many people choose to be treated with drugs. But what about new mothers, whose desire to breastfeed means they are not candidates for psychiatric meds? Nature is providing hope in the form of a delicate flower: saffron

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Author: GMI Research Group
Posted: December 11, 2017, 11:45 pm
PMID:  Med Sci Monit. 2017 Oct 14 ;23:4918-4925. Epub 2017 Oct 14. PMID: 29031023Abstract Title:  Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Treadmill Training Improves Walking Performance in Post-Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.Abstract:  BACKGROUND Stroke is characterized by an asymmetrical gait pattern that causes poor stability and reduces overall activity levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whole-body vibration combined with treadmill training (WBV-TT) on walking performance in patients with chronic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty ambulatory chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to the WBV-TT group or the treadmill training (TT) group. The participants in the WBV-TT group performed 6 types of exercises on a vibrating platform for 4.5 minutes and then walked on the treadmill for 20 minutes. The participants in the TT group conducted the same exercise on a platform without vibration and then walked on the treadmill in the same manner. The vibration lasted for 45 seconds in each exercise, and the intervention was performed 3 times weekly for 6 weeks. The treadmill walking speed was gradually increased by 5% in both groups. The outcome measures included the temporospatial parameter of gait (GAITRite®) and 6-minute walk test. RESULTS The WBV-TT group showed significant improvements in walking performance with respect to walking speed, cadence, step length, stride length, single-limb support, double-limb support, and 6-minute walk test compared with baseline (p

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 10:33 pm
PMID:  Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8. PMID: 29119301Abstract Title:  Whole body vibration added to treatment as usual is effective in adolescents with depression: a partly randomized, three-armed clinical trial in inpatients.Abstract:  There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of adult major depression. With regard to adolescents, clinical trials are scarce. Due to the inherent symptoms of depression (lack of energy, low motivation to exercise), endurance training forms could be too demanding especially in the first weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that an easy-to-perform passive muscular training on a whole body vibration (WBV) device has equal anti-depressive effects compared to a cardiovascular training, both administered as add-ons to treatment as usual (TAU). Secondly, we presumed that both exercise interventions would be superior in their response, compared to TAU. In 2 years 64 medication-naïve depressed inpatients aged 13-18, were included. Both exercise groups fulfilled a supervised vigorous training for 6 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report ("Depressions Inventar für Kinder und Jugendliche"-DIKJ) before intervention and after weeks 6, 14 and 26. Compared to TAU, both groups responded earlier and more strongly measured by DIKJ scores, showing a trend for the WBV group after week 6 (p = 0.082). The decrease became statistically significant for both intervention groups after week 26 (p = 0.037 for ergometer and p = 0.042 for WBV). Remission rates amounted to 39.7% after week 6 and 66% after week 26, compared to 25% after week 26 in TAU. These results provide qualified support for the effectiveness of exercise as add-on treatment for medication-naïve depressed adolescents. The present results are limited by the not randomized control group.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 10:25 pm
PMID:  J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2017 Dec 1 ;17(4):259-267. PMID: 29199184Abstract Title:  Home-based vibration assisted exercise as a new treatment option for scoliosis - A randomised controlled trial.Abstract:  OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scoliosis specific exercises (SSE) on a side-alternating whole body vibration platform (sWBV) as a home-training program in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).METHODS: 40 female AIS patients (10-17 years) wearing a brace were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention was a six months, home-based, SSE program on a sWBV platform five times per week. Exercises included standing, sitting and kneeling. The control group received regular SSE (treatment as usual). The Cobb angle was measured at start and after six months. Onset of menarche was documented for sub-group analysis.RESULTS: The major curve in the sWBV group decreased significantly by -2.3° (SD±3.8) (95% CI -4.1 to -0.5; P=0.014) compared to the difference in the control group of 0.3° (SD±3.7) (95% CI -1.5 to 2.2; P=0.682) (P=0.035). In the sWBV group 20% (n=4) improved, 75% (n=15) stabilized and 5% (n=1) deteriorated by ≥5°. In the control group 0% (n=0) improved, 89% (n=16)stabilized and 11% (n=2) deteriorated. The clinically largest change was observed in the 'before-menarche' sub-group.CONCLUSIONS: Home-based SSE combined with sWBV for six months counteracts the progression of scoliosis in girls with AIS; the results were more obvious before the onset of the menarche.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 10:03 pm
PMID:  J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2017 Dec 1 ;17(4):268-274. PMID: 29199185Abstract Title:  Efficacy and safety of whole body vibration in maintenance hemodialysis patients - A pilot study.Abstract:  OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess safety and effectiveness of Whole Body Vibration exercise (WBV) to improve physical performance and parameters of inflammation in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).METHODS: Prospective, open-label trial in n=14 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Participants performed WBV twice weekly for 12 weeks before (n=8) or after (n=6) hemodialysis sessions. The primary endpoint was physical performance assessed by the Short-Physical-Performance-Battery (SPPB). Secondary endpoints included established parameters of musculoskeletal assessment and blood chemistry.RESULTS: As compared to baseline, physical performance (SPPB) improved significantly (p=0.035). Moderate advances were also seen for 6-Minute-Walking test, Timed-up-and-go test, jumping height and handgrip strength. Improvements were particularly pronounced in subjects with seriously impaired baseline performance. Skeletal muscle index showed a tendency to better values. Laboratory data exhibited a significant reduction of white blood cell count and a trend to lower levels of hsCRP. WBV was generally well tolerated. Two events of clinically significant blood pressure decline occurred in patients exercising after dialysis sessions.CONCLUSIONS: Results of this pilot study suggest effectiveness and safety of WBV in hemodialysis patients. Beneficial effects may affect both, parameters of physical performance and systemic inflammatory activity, which should be verified in larger scale clinical trials.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 9:53 pm
PMID:  J Phys Ther Sci. 2017 Nov ;29(11):2022-2025. Epub 2017 Nov 24. PMID: 29200649Abstract Title:  The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.Abstract:  [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration in acute stroke patients on balance and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study and were divided into a group of 10, a group for biofeedback postural control training combined with a whole body vibration, one for biofeedback postural control training combined with an aero-step, and one for biofeedback postural control training. Biorescue was used to measure the limits of stability, balance ability, and Lukotronic was used to measure step length, gait ability. [Results] In the comparison of balance ability and gait ability between the groups for before and after intervention, Group I showed a significant difference in balance ability and gait ability compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration is effective for improving balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 9:42 pm
PMID:  J Nurs Scholarsh. 2017 Jul ;49(4):411-420. Epub 2017 May 23. PMID: 28544507Abstract Title:  The Effect of Binaural Beat Technology on the Cardiovascular Stress Response in Military Service Members With Postdeployment Stress.Abstract:  PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of embedded theta brainwave frequency in music using binaural beat technology (BBT) compared to music alone on the cardiovascular stress response in military service members with postdeployment stress.DESIGN: A double-blinded, randomized, pre- and postintervention trial.METHODS: Seventy-four military services members with complaint of postdeployment stress were randomized to either music with BBT or music alone. Each group listened to their respective intervention for a minimum of 30 min at bedtime for three consecutive nights a week for a total of 4 weeks. A 20-min pre- and postintervention heart rate variability (HRV) stress test and daily perceived stress via diaries assessed intervention efficacy.FINDINGS: There was a statistical difference (p = .01) in low-frequency HRV between the music with BBT group compared to the music only group. The average low-frequency HRV decreased in the music with BBT group 2.5 ms2 /Hz, while in the music only group it increased 7.99 ms2 /Hz. There was also a significant difference (p = .01) in the high-frequency HRV measures, with the music with BBT group showing an increase in HRV by 2.5 ms2 /Hz compared to the music only group, which decreased by 7.64 ms2 /Hz. There were significant (p = .01) differences found in total power measures, with the music only group decreasing by 1,113.64 ms2 /Hz compared to 26.68 ms2 /Hz for the music with BBT group. Finally, daily diaries consistently showed that participants who used BBT reported less stress over the course of the 4 weeks.CONCLUSIONS: When placed under an acute stressor, participants who used music with embedded BBT showed a decrease in sympathetic responses and an increase in parasympathetic responses, while participants who used music alone had the opposite effect.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of BBT in the theta brainwave frequency embedded into music decreases physical and psychological indications of stress. BBT embedded with beta and delta frequencies may improve cognitive functioning and sleep quality, respectively.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 7:41 pm
PMID:  Int J Psychophysiol. 2017 Oct ;120:96-107. Epub 2017 Jul 21. PMID: 28739482Abstract Title:  Brain responses to 40-Hz binaural beat and effects on emotion and memory.Abstract:  Gamma oscillation plays a role in binding process or sensory integration, a process by which several brain areas beside primary cortex are activated for higher perception of the received stimulus. Beta oscillation is also involved in interpreting received stimulus and occurs following gamma oscillation, and this process is known as gamma-to-beta transition, a process for neglecting unnecessary stimuli in surrounding environment. Gamma oscillation also associates with cognitive functions, memory and emotion. Therefore, modulation of the brain activity can lead to manipulation of cognitive functions. The stimulus used in this study was 40-Hz binaural beat because binaural beat induces frequency following response. This study aimed to investigate the neural oscillation responding to the 40-Hz binaural beat and to evaluate working memory function and emotional states after listening to that stimulus. Two experiments were developed based on the study aims. In the first experiment, electroencephalograms were recorded while participants listened to the stimulus for 30min. The results suggested that frontal, temporal, and central regions were activated within 15min. In the second experiment, word list recall task was conducted before and after listening to the stimulus for 20min. The results showed that, after listening, the recalled words were increase in the working memory portion of the list. Brunel Mood Scale, a questionnaire to evaluate emotional states, revealed changes in emotional states after listening to the stimulus. The emotional results suggested that these changes were consistent with the induced neural oscillations.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 7:20 pm
PMID:  Psychol Res. 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8. PMID: 29222722Abstract Title:  Binaural auditory beats affect long-term memory.Abstract:  The presentation of two pure tones to each ear separately with a slight difference in their frequency results in the perception of a single tone that fluctuates in amplitude at a frequency that equals the difference of interaural frequencies. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binaural auditory beats, and it is thought to entrain electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and memory. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binaural auditory beats on long-term memory. Participants (n = 32) were kept blind to the goal of the study and performed both the free recall and recognition tasks after being exposed to binaural auditory beats, either in the beta (20 Hz) or theta (5 Hz) frequency bands and white noise as a control condition. Exposure to beta-frequency binaural beatsyielded a greater proportion of correctly recalled words and a higher sensitivity index d' in recognition tasks, while theta-frequency binaural-beat presentation lessened the number of correctly remembered words and the sensitivity index. On the other hand, we could not find differences in the conditional probability for recall given recognition between beta and theta frequencies and white noise, suggesting that the observed changes in recognition were due to the recollection component. These findings indicate that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect long-term memory both positively and negatively, depending on the frequency used.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 7:05 pm
PMID:  Biomed Res Int. 2017 ;2017:7974149. Epub 2017 Oct 18. PMID: 29181404Abstract Title:  Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Cardiovascular Dysfunction in STZ-Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats.Abstract:  The aim of this study was to determine if chronic, low-dose administration of a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist could provide cardioprotective effects in a model of type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced in eight-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto rats via a single intravenous dose of streptozotocin (65 mg kg-1). Following the induction of diabetes, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was administered via intraperitoneal injection (0.15 mg kg-1 day-1) for an eight-week period until the animals reached sixteen weeks of age. Upon completion of the treatment regime, assessments of vascular reactivityand left ventricular function and electrophysiology were made, as were serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol administration to diabetic animals significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations and attenuated pathological changes in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Positive changes to biochemical indices in diabetic animals conferred improvements in myocardial and vascular function. This study demonstrates that chronic, low-dose administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol can elicit antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effectsin diabetic animals, leading to improvements in end organ function of the cardiovascular system. Implications from this study suggest that cannabinoid receptors may be a potential new target for the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 6:47 pm
PMID:  Chemosphere. 2017 Dec 1 ;194:414-421. Epub 2017 Dec 1. PMID: 29223812Abstract Title:  Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils?Abstract:  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28 °C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg g-1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 11, 2017, 5:42 pm
This article is copyrighted by GreenMedInfo LLC, 2017
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New insights in biology show that food is informational and can directly impact and even control the expression of your genes. The implications of this discovery are profound, and have both a light and dark side in need of deeper exploration...

 

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Author: Sayer Ji
Posted: December 10, 2017, 11:12 pm
PMID:  Nutr J. 2017 Dec 4 ;16(1):76. Epub 2017 Dec 4. PMID: 29202751Abstract Title:  Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety.Abstract:  BACKGROUND: Dietary strategies that help patients adhere to a weight reduction diet may increase the likelihood of weight loss maintenance and improved long-term health outcomes. Regular nut consumption has been associated with better weight management and less adiposity. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a walnut-enriched reduced-energy diet to a standard reduced-energy-density diet on weight, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and satiety.METHODS: Overweight and obese men and women (n = 100) were randomly assigned to a standard reduced-energy-density diet or a walnut-enriched (15% of energy) reduced-energy diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Measurements were obtained at baseline and 3- and 6-month clinic visits. Participants rated hunger, fullness and anticipated prospective consumption at 3 time points during the intervention. Body measurements, blood pressure, physical activity, lipids, tocopherols and fatty acids were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models.RESULTS: Both study groups reduced body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (time effect p 

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 10, 2017, 3:45 am
PMID:  Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25. PMID: 29077944Abstract Title:  Association of serum magnesium with all-cause mortality in patients with and without chronic kidney disease in the Dallas Heart Study.Abstract:  Background: Low serum magnesium (SMg) has been linked to increased mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. We examined whether this association is similar in participants with versus without prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the multiethnic Dallas Heart Study (DHS) cohort.Methods: SMg was analyzed as a continuous variable and divided into tertiles. Study outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular (CV) death or event, and CVD surrogate markers, evaluated using multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for demographics, comorbidity, anthropometric and biochemical parameters including albumin, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone, and diuretic use. Median follow-up was 12.3 years (11.9-12.8, 25th percentile-75th percentile).Results: Among 3551 participants, 306 (8.6%) had prevalent CKD. Mean SMg was 2.08 ± 0.19 mg/dL (0.85 ± 0.08 mM, mean ± SD) in the CKD and 2.07 ± 0.18 mg/dL (0.85 ± 0.07 mM) in the non-CKD subgroups. During the follow-up period, 329 all-cause deaths and 306 CV deaths or events occurred. In a fully adjusted model, every 0.2 mg/dL decrease in SMgwas associated with ∼20-40% increased hazard for all-cause death in both CKD and non-CKD subgroups. In CKD participants, the lowest SMg tertile was also independently associated with all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.31; 95% confidence interval 1.23-4.36 versus 1.15; 0.55-2.41; for low versus high tertile, respectively).Conclusions: Low SMg levels (1.4-1.9 mg/dL; 0.58-0.78 mM) were independently associated with all-cause death in patients with prevalent CKD in the DHS cohort. Randomized clinical trials are important to determine whether Mg supplementation affects survival in CKD patients.

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Author: greenmedinfo
Posted: December 10, 2017, 1:53 am
REFRESHED: December 13, 2017 | 05:16